Title: The risk of oral transmission in an area of a Chagas disease outbreak in the Brazilian northeast evaluated through entomological, socioeconomic and schooling indicators
Author: Monsalve-lara, Jackeline; Dornak, L Lynnette; Lima, Marli M; Donalisio, Maria R; Almeida, Carlos E; Lilioso, Maurício; Valença-barbosa, Carolina; Thyssen, Patricia J; Miguel, Danilo C; Limeira, Cleanne; Gadelha, Fernanda R; Fontes, Fernanda V H M; Pires-silva, Dayane
Is part of: ACTA TROPICA, v. 215, p. 105803 -
Citation: Monsalve-lara, Jackeline; Dornak, L Lynnette; Lima, Marli M; Donalisio, Maria R; Almeida, Carlos E; Lilioso, Maurício; Valença-barbosa, Carolina; Thyssen, Patricia J; Miguel, Danilo C; Limeira, Cleanne; Gadelha, Fernanda R; Fontes, Fernanda V H M; Pires-silva, Dayane; The risk of oral transmission in an area of a Chagas disease outbreak in the Brazilian northeast evaluated through entomological, socioeconomic and schooling indicators. ACTA TROPICA, v.215, p. 105803-, 2021
Abstract: Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease strongly associated with low socioeconomic status, affecting nearly 8 million people - mainly Latin Americans. The current infection risk is based on acute case reports, most of which are typically associated with oral transmissions. In the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil, serious outbreaks of this transmission type have surged in the last years. One of those occurred in 2016 in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. Rural residents of four municipalities surrounding Marcelino Vieira ingested sugar cane juice - which was probably ground with Trypanosoma cruzi-infected insects. Eighteen cases of Chagas disease were confirmed serologically, with two deaths reported. Socioeconomic information, schooling of residents and the structure of peridomestic and domestic environments in the rural area of Marcelino Vieira, along with entomological indicators, were investigated to understand better the factors related to the outbreaks in this region. We found triatomines (mainly Triatoma brasiliensis) in 35% (24/67) of domiciliary units and all rocky outcrops inspected (n = 7). Overall, 25% (91/357) of examined T. brasiliensis were infected by T. cruzi in artificial ecotopes, with almost the same prevalence in the sylvatic environment (22%; 35/154). Among all ecotopes investigated, wood/tile/brick piles were the ones linked to high insect infestations and triatomine T. cruzi infection prevalence. Ninety-five percent of people interviewed recognized the triatomines and knew the classic mute of transmission of disease - triatomine bite-dependent. However, only 7.5% admitted knowledge that Chagas disease can also be acquired orally - which poses a risk this transmission route currently recognized. Here, we highlight the physical proximity between humans and triatomine populations with high T. cruzi infection prevalence as an additional risk factor to oral/vector contaminations. In sum, residents have low income, low level of education, and/or a willful disregard for the mutes of Chagas disease transmission (specifically oral transmission), a combination of factors that may have favored the Chagas disease outbreak. We here provide recommendations to avoid further outbreaks.
Funding: CEA received grants from Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP), grant 16/08176-9, support type: Research Grants - Young Investigators Grants; https://bv.fapesp.br/en/auxilios/94492/an-integrative-approach-to-morphological-and-molecular-diver sity-of-triatoma-brasiliensis-the-main/) and from the Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, process number 434,260/2018-5, 134,289/2019-6). CEA is a CNPq Research Productivity Granted -PQ-2 (306,357/2019-4). The funders had no role in study design, data collection, analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.