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Title: Limitations to sustainable frankincense production: blocked regeneration, high adult mortality and declining populations
Author: Groenendijk, Peter; Sterck, Frank J.; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Bongers, Frans
Year: 2012
Is part of: JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, v. 49, p. 164 - 173
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2664.2011.02078.x

Citation: Groenendijk, Peter; Sterck, Frank J.; Zuidema, Pieter A.; Bongers, Frans; Limitations to sustainable frankincense production: blocked regeneration, high adult mortality and declining populations. JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY, v.49, p. 164-173, 2012

Abstract: 1. Resins are highly valued non-timber forest products (NTFP). One of the most widely traded resins is frankincense, tapped from several Boswellia tree species (Burseraceae). Exploited Boswellia populations often show poor regeneration, but the demographic consequences of these bottlenecks are unknown. Here we report on the first large-scale demographic study of frankincense-producing trees.

Keywords: Boswellia papyrifera; Ethiopia; frankincense; matrix model; non-timber forest product; regeneration bottleneck;

Funding: We would like to thank the people of Lemlem Terara and Adi Arkay for the support and permission to carry out this experiment. This research is part of the Dutch-Ethiopian FRAME program 'FRAnkincense, Myrrh and arabic gum: sustainable use of dry woodland resources in Ethiopia', funded by NWO (WOTRO; W01.65.220.00) and executed in collaboration by Dutch and Ethiopian Universities and research institutes. PG acknowledges support of the Alberta Mennega Stichting and Miquelfonds. PAZ was supported by ERC grant 242955. We thank two anonymous reviewers for constructive comments.
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