Title: Osmophores and floral fragrance in Anacardium humile and Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae): an overlooked secretory structure in Sapindales
Author: Dantas Tölke, Elisabeth; Bachelier, Julien B; Alves De Lima, Elimar; José Pena Ferreira, Marcelo; Demarco, Diego; Maria Carmello-guerreiro, Sandra
Is part of: AoB Plants, v. 10, p. ply062 -
Citation: Dantas Tölke, Elisabeth; Bachelier, Julien B; Alves De Lima, Elimar; José Pena Ferreira, Marcelo; Demarco, Diego; Maria Carmello-guerreiro, Sandra; Osmophores and floral fragrance in Anacardium humile and Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae): an overlooked secretory structure in Sapindales. AoB Plants, v.10, p. ply062-, 2018
Abstract: Flowers of Anacardiaceae and other Sapindales typically produce nectar, but scent, often associated with a reward for pollinators, has surprisingly been mentioned only rarely for members of the family and order. However, flowers of Anacardium humile and Mangifera indica produce a strong sweet scent. The origin and composition of these floral scents is the subject of this study. Screening of potential osmophores on the petals and investigations of their anatomy were carried out by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The composition of the floral fragrance was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In both species, the base of the adaxial side of each petal revealed specialized secretory epidermal cells which are essentially similar in structure and distinct from all other neighbouring cells. These cells also showed evidence of granulocrine secretory mechanisms and slight specific variations in their subcellular apparatus coinciding with the respective composition of the floral fragrance, predominantly composed of sesquiterpenes in A. humile and monoterpenes in M. indica. This study reports the presence of osmophores for the first time in flowers of Anacardiaceae and confirms the link between the ultrastructural features of their secretory cells and the volatiles produced by the flowers. The flowers of most Sapindales, including Anacardiaceae, are nectariferous. However, the presence of osmophores has only been described for very few genera of Rutaceae and Sapindaceae. Both the occurrence of osmophores and fragrance may have largely been overlooked in Anacardiaceae and Sapindales until now. Further studies are needed to better understand the nature and diversity of the interactions of their nectariferous flowers with their pollinators.
Subjects: CIENCIAS_BIOLOGICAS; Morfologia Vegetal; Anatomia Vegetal;
Funding: This research was financially supported by grants from 'Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo' (FAPESP -proc. no 2014/18002-2) and CNPq (proc. no 420417/2016-8). The first author also thanks CAPES for a scholarship provided for a semester abroad at FU Berlin (PDSE proc. no 88881.133676/2016-01).