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Title: Hybridization and geographic distribution shapes the spatial genetic structure of two co-occurring orchid species
Author: Sujii, Patrícia Sanae; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Pinheiro, Fábio
Year: 2019
Is part of: HEREDITY, v. 123, p. 458 - 469

Citation: Sujii, Patrícia Sanae; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Pinheiro, Fábio; Hybridization and geographic distribution shapes the spatial genetic structure of two co-occurring orchid species. HEREDITY, v.123, p. 458-469, 2019

Abstract: Multiple ecological and life-history traits shape the fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS) of a given population. The occurrence in core versus peripheral populations, levels of outcrossing, pollen and seed dispersal, and hybridization are important biological properties that influence the kinship of individuals within populations. We examined spatial genetic structure within 15 populations of Epidendrum fulgens and E. puniceoluteum distributed along a linear gradient of Brazilian coastal vegetation, including both allopatric and sympatric populations where the two orchid species hybridize. We analyzed 581 mapped specimens using nine simple sequence repeat loci, aiming to investigate how geographic distribution and hybridization shape within-population FSGS. A significant increase in FSGS was found towards peripheral populations, compared to core populations. Analysis of short-distance and long-distance components of FSGS identified biparental inbreeding and higher levels of FSGS at peripheral populations, when compared to core populations. In contrast, the relatively high density of reproductive adults in core populations potentially leads to highly overlapping seed and pollen movement, decreasing FSGS. Hybridization was an important factor shaping within-population spatial genetic structure at sympatric sites, decreasing the FSGS observed in parental species. Our results indicate that different ecological forces act in concert to create a gradient of FSGS along species distribution ranges, shaped by extensive levels of intraspecific and interspecific gene exchange.

Funding: We thank V. Tranchida-Lombardo and R. Rinaldi for helping in the laboratory. Funding for this study was provided by grants from the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq-300927/2016-9) and Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP-2006/54189-3, 2009/15052-0, 2019/04918-9) to F. P. F. P received fellowship from CNPq and CAPES.
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